Glaciers are both geographical features in their own right, and also the agent which produces a host of landscape features such as u shape valleys, ribbon lakes, kames and kettleholes. These pages look at how and where glaciers form, how ice manages to flow and the features it can produce through both erosion and deposition. The formation of corries ( also called cirques or cwms ) is explained, and different types of glaciers are investigated. Some of the pages look in more detail at the processes occurring within a glacier, for example the transformation of loose snow into hard glacial ice.
Natural resources which have benefited mankind in various ways for thousands of years have gradually been used up. Forests and their wildlife have suffered most from this process. Not only have trees been felled for timber and firewood, but set alight deliberately by ancient peoples as a means of capturing enemy towns. Even using primitive axes, people were able to destroy vast tracts of forest. Deforestation has led to serious erosion, which began around 2700 years ago. Yet despite thousands of years of destruction by logging, herds of goats, and fire, Turkey still has large tracts of beautiful natural forest land.